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Neurología Mancha-Centro

Servicio de Neurología del Area Mancha Centro - Hosp. General Mancha Centro y Hosp. General de Tomelloso

Blog de Neurologia Post New Entry

ELECTROMIOGRAMA (EMG). QUE ES Y PARA QUE SIRVE?

Posted by Enrique Botia Paniagua - Jefe de Neurología HGMC on November 9, 2015 at 11:30 AM

 

Se trata de una prueba diagnóstica neurofisiológica cuya utilidad es conocer el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso periférico (músculos y nervios).

 

El registro funcional del nervio o electroneurograma, consiste en aplicar un pequeño estímulo eléctrico sobre uno o varios puntos de un nervio para determinar cómo éste conduce la corriente eléctrica en su interior, lo que se hace mediante el registro y análisis de diferentes parámetros, el más conocido de los cuales es la velocidad de conducción.

 

La exploración se efectúa con el paciente tumbado en una camilla y comúnmente se realiza con electrodos de superficie (adheridos sobre la piel) y excepcionalmente se utilizan electrodos de aguja.

 

Los estudios de conducción nerviosa son muy útiles para diagnosticar síndromes por atrapamiento de nervios periféricos, siendo el más frecuente el síndrome del túnel carpiano, que cursa con parestesias (es decir, hormigueo y sensación de adormecimiento) en las manos, de predominio nocturno y que, en casos avanzados, puede provocar dolores en la muñeca y antebrazo, así como caída de objetos de los dedos por debilidad muscular parcial y falta de sensibilidad, dificultando tareas que requieren precisión con las manos. El síndrome del túnel carpiano es la patología más frecuentemente referida a la consulta de Neurofisiología. En las neuropatías traumáticas con lesiones graves del nervio, los estudios de conducción nerviosa permiten establecer el tipo anatómico de lesión, su localización, el pronóstico funcional y evaluar el ritmo de recuperación.




 

El registro funcional del músculo o electromiografía se realiza mediante un electrodo de aguja insertado en la musculatura a explorar, dicho electrodo es capaz de registrar la actividad eléctrica generada por la contracción muscular, transformada en imagen y sonido mediante un ordenador.

 

No se inyecta ninguna sustancia. El sangrado o aparición de hematomas por la punción son poco frecuentes. Algunos pacientes pueden presentar sensación dolorosa o pequeños hematomas tras la exploración, que desaparecerán en breve.

 

La electromiografía con aguja es útil como complemento de los estudios de conducción nerviosa en las lesiones de los nervios periféricos. Este tipo de estudios es fundamental en las radiculopatías, es decir, en la afectación de raíces nerviosas que emergen de la médula espinal a través de los agujeros de conjunción vertebrales, y cuya lesión es responsable de los síntomas en trastornos de columna, sean degenerativos o traumáticos, que consisten en dolor (cervicalgia, lumbalgia, lumbociática, dorsalgia), y trastornos sensitivo/motores en las extremidades. La electromiografía, en estos trastornos, permite localizar el nivel de la lesión (facilitando su intervención quirúrgica si procede), establecer la gravedad de la lesión, la datación de la misma, y diferenciarla de otros síndromes dolorosos (fibromialgia, atrapamiento de nervio periférico, dolor miofascial, afecciones reumáticas).




 

© Dr. Félix Peinado Postigo - Neurofisiólogo Clínico. Actualizado en Noviembre 2015
Servicio de Neurología y Neurofisiología Hospital General La Mancha Centro. 

Categories: Pruebas Neurofisiológicas, Neuromuscular

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